Nirvāna or the end of suffering has the same meaning with vimutti, that is freedom from suffering. Sometimes the Buddha said that Buddhism has only one single taste, freedom from suffering, just as the ocean has only salty taste. Freedom from suffering or nirvāna is therefore the ideal or highest goal of Buddhism.
2.The principles of Buddhism As the goal has to be achieved through human effort, therefore in the second part of the Ovāda-pātimokkha the Buddha taught the principles for the practice so that human effort effectively leads to nirvāna. This can be seen in the summarized stanza beginning with sabba-pāpassa akaranam etc. which I have presented at the start. The meaning of the full verse is: “Avoid doing all evil; Cultivated all that is wholesome, And purify one’s mind. This is the teaching of all the Buddhas.” This part of the Pali verse in the Ovāda-pātimokkha deals with the principles on how human endeavor can lead to the end of suffering, nirvāna. The principal practice in this Ovāda-pātimokkha is divided into three steps as found in the first three lines of the verse, with one leading to another step until the attainment of the highest goal, nirvāna. They are: i)To avoid doing all evil means to follow precepts that require one to abstain from doing evil through physical action such as killing beings as well as through speech such as telling a lie. ii) To cultivate all that is wholesome means meditation practice as well as the practice to enhance wholesome qualities for one’s own and others welfare and well-beings. iii) To purify one’s mind means wisdom that arises from meditation practice aimed at purifying the mind from being defiled by greed, anger and delusion. These three-step principles represent the three-fold training, namely moral ethics (sila), concentration (samādhi) and wisdom (pannyā). They are the heart of the Dhamma practice that leads us step by step to freedom, as stated in the Pali canonical text: sila-paribhāvito Samādhi Mahapphalo hoti mahānisam so… etc.. ”Once moral practice is well established, It is directly fruitful and beneficial to concentration. A well-established concentration is directly fruitful And beneficial to wisdom. Once wisdom is well-developed, the mind is free from All fermented negativities of the mind.” Here freedom is nirvāna.